Institute of Elecrochemistry, TU Clausthal
Professor Frank Endres at TU Clausthal is one of the pioneers of the electrochemistry of ionic liquids and is working since 20 years on fundamental physical-chemical and electrochemical aspects of ionic liquids. Buliding on longterm experience with in-situ STM, a few years ago the in-situ atomic force microscopy was applied in collaboration with Prof. Atkin in order to understand the interfacial behavior of ionic liquids [1-4]. The important finding was that in function of potential strongly adherent solvate layers form at the interface that can dramatically influence electrochemical reactions. This is one of the reasons why the deposition of refractory metals may work in one specific ionic liquid, but not in another one . Further it was possible with this method to come to an understanding, how other salts or additives and the temperature influence deposition. So far, the results on deposition of Nb  and Ta  imply that by modifying the interfacial properties also the titanium deposition might succeed . Apart of a broad range of electrochemical equipment the institute also has 8 inert gas glove boxes at its disposal as well as two surface analysis systems (OMICRON, SPECS), permitting carrying out monochromatic XPS. Samples can without contact to air be directly transferred from the glovebox into the UHV chamber. The group also uses a high resolution scanning electron microscope from JEOL, STEM as well as UV/VIS, IR and Raman spectroscopy.
- R. Atkin, N. Borisenko, M. Druschler, F. Endres, R. Hayes, B. Huber, B. Roling, Structure and dynamics of the interfacial layer between ionic liquids and electrode materials, J. Mol. Liq., 192 (2014) 44-54.
- R. Hayes, N. Borisenko, B. Corr, G.B. Webber, F. Endres, R. Atkin, Effect of dissolved LiCl on the ionic liquid-Au(111) electrical double layer structure, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge, U. K.), 48 (2012) 10246-10248.
- T. Carstens, R. Hayes, S.Z. El Abedin, B. Corr, G.B. Webber, N. Borisenko, R. Atkin, F. Endres, In situ STM, AFM and DTS study of the interface 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate/Au(111), Electrochim. Acta, 82 (2012) 48-59.
- F. Endres, O. Höfft, N. Borisenko, L.H. Gasparotto, A. Prowald, R. Al-Salman, T. Carstens, R. Atkin, A. Bund, E.A.S. Zein, Do solvation layers of ionic liquids influence electrochemical reactions?, Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP, 12 (2010) 1724-1732.
- T. Carstens, A. Ispas, N. Borisenko, R. Atkin, A. Bund, F. Endres, In situ STM, AFM and EQCM studies of the electrochemical deposition of tantalum in two different ionic liquids with the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation, Electrochimica Acta, 197 (2016) 374-387.
- P. Giridhar, S. Zein El Abedin, A. Bund, A. Ispas, F. Endres, Electrodeposition of Niobium from 1-Butyl-1-Methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide Ionic Liquid, Electrochimica Acta, 129 (2014) 312-317.
- S. Zein El Abedin, H.K. Farag, E.M. Moustafa, U. Welz-Biermann, F. Endres, Electroreduction of tantalum fluoride in a room temperature ionic liquid at variable temperatures, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 7 (2005) 2333-2339.
- F. Endres, S. Zein El Abedin, A.Y. Saad, E.M. Moustafa, N. Borissenko, W.E. Price, G.G. Wallace, D.R. MacFarlane, P.J. Newman, A. Bund, On the electrodeposition of titanium in ionic liquids, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 10 (2008) 2189-2199.
Prof. Dr. Frank Endres
Dr. Timo Carstens